Regional Geology
The following text has been excerpted from the Oct 15th 2012 43 101 report

The Miner Mountain Property is located within the southern portion of the Quesnel Terrane, or Quesnellia, of the Intermontane Tectonic Belt of British Columbia. Quesnellia is a northwesterly trending belt of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic submarine and subaerial alkalic and calc-alkalic volcanic rocks, related sedimentary rocks, and comagmatic intrusive rocks some 40 to 50 kilometers wide and traceable from near the 49th parallel along the full length of the Intermontane Belt into the Yukon.


In southern British Columbia, this assemblage of volcanoplutonic arc rocks is known as the Nicola Group, a name derived from Nicola Lake near Merritt and coined by G.M. Dawson who in 1877 did the earliest geological work on these rocks. In northern British Columbia and Yukon these rocks are known as the Takla and Stuhini volcanoplutonic assemblages. These rocks are noted for their mineral deposits, principally copper-gold porphyry deposits, and copper and gold skarns.


The central part of the Nicola Group between Merritt and Princeton has been subdivided into three sub-parallel structural belts, referred to as the Western, Central, and Eastern Belt, on the basis of physical and chemical differences of the rock assemblages. The three belts are separated by two northerly trending high-angle fault systems (Preto, 1979). North of the Miner Mountain Property , the Summers Creek Fault separates rocks of the Central Belt from those of the Eastern Belt which underlie the Property. Farther north and west, the Allison Fault system separates Central Belt from Western Belt rocks (Preto, 1979).


North of the Property, in the area between Missezeula Lake and Merritt, Eastern Belt rocks consist of an assemblage of westerly facing volcanic siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, tuff, laharic deposits, and distinctly alkaline trachybasalt flows which occur near numerous stocks of micromonzonite porphyry which may have associated copper-gold porphyry style mineralization. On the Property itself, Nicola Group rocks are separated from much younger sedimentary rocks of the Eocene Princeton Group by the northerly trending Boundary Fault, a probable southern extension of the Summers Creek Fault.


Central Belt rocks are dominated by massive pyroxene and plagioclase-rich andesitic and basaltic flows of alkalic and calc-alkalic composition, breccia and lahar deposits, and subordinate amounts of conglomerate and finer grained pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks. Comagmatic intrusive rocks are mostly diorite with subordinate syenite, occur mostly along major faults in the eastern half of the Belt, and may contain copper-gold porphyry type deposit such as the Axe Deposit, 15km north of the Miner Mountain Property


The Alteration and Metallogeny of AlkalicPorphyry Cu - Au deposits is zoned outward from the core, from a high temperature - low sulphidation environment to a colloer more sulphur rich environment. The metals go from a copper-gold rich core to a disseminated Au-Ag / Zn-Pb environment. Likewise alteration minerals go from high temperature orthoclase-magnetite-biotite through alibite (with occasional hematite dusting) - actinolite to coller epidote-chlorite-calcite assemblages.

Western Belt rocks include andesite to rhyolite flows of distinctly calc-alkalic composition and tuff, which are interbedded with limestone of Lower to Middle Norian age, volcanic conglomerate, and sandstone (Preto, 1979).


The large northerly trending fault systems such as Allison and Summers Creek, are believed (Preto, 1979) to represent deep-seated crustal fractures which dominated the geology of the region in Late Triassic time and caused volcanic centers to be aligned in a northerly direction, thus producing a central zone of dominantly volcanic and intrusive rocks, the Central Belt and part of the Eastern Belt, flanked to the west and east by sedimentary basins. Some of these eruptive centers can be identified with stocks or clusters of stocks of micromonzonite or microdiorite which may have associated copper-gold mineralization such as at the Miner Mountain Property and Axe Property, and at Copper Mountain 15km south of Princeton and the Miner Mountain Property .


The Alteration and Metallogeny of AlkalicPorphyry Cu - Au deposits is zoned outward from the core, from a high temperature - low sulphidation environment to a colloer more sulphur rich environment. The metals go from a copper-gold rich core to a disseminated Au-Ag / Zn-Pb environment. Likewise alteration minerals go from high temperature orthoclase-magnetite-biotite through alibite (with occasional hematite dusting) - actinolite to coller epidote-chlorite-calcite assemblages.


The exploration targets on the Miner Mountain Property are Alkaline Cu-Au Porphyry and Au-Ag quartz veins related to alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Nicola Group and coeval alkaline or calc-alkaline intrusive rocks (Figure 8.1). The deposit type sought on the Property is alkalic copper-gold porphyry deposits similar to those found throughout Quesnellia and particularly at Copper Mountain some fifteen kilometers south of the Property and Afton twelve kilometres west of Kamloops. Alkalic porphyry systems are known world wide and are important sources of copper and gold. The best known mineral provinces hosting these deposits are the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic volcanoplutonic arcs of Quesnellia and Stikinia in British Columbia and the Late Ordovician Lachlan Fold Belt of New South Wales. Key characteristics of Alkalic copper-gold systems in the Mesozoic arcs of British Columbia include (Preto, 2011):

  • - Association with coeval and comagmatic volcano-plutonic complexes that formed at intermediate (≤ 5 km) to very shallow, subvolcanic (≤ 1.5 km) depth
  • - Association with small pipe-like or dyke-like subvolcanic intrusions, which may occur in clusters (e.g. Mt. Polley), or with larger stocks that were emplaced at intermediate depth .(e.g. Copper Mountain)
  • - Association with large fault structures or intersections of such structures which may have localized the emplacement of the mineralizing intrusions.(e.g. Copper Mountain)
  • - Mineralization may be largely intrusive–hosted (e.g. Mt. Polley, Afton), volcanic-hosted (e.g. most of Copper Mountain), or both (e.g. Copper Mountain-Ingerbelle; Preto, 1972)
  • - Can be high-grade in gold and copper and may contain significant palladium. (e.g. Afton)
  • - Mineralization may be hosted in pre- or early-mineral magmatic-hydrothermal breccias (Sillitoe, 1985). If so, grade in the breccias is usually considerably higher than the rest of the system (e.g. Mt. Polley, Afton )
  • - Association with moderate to strong albitic and potassic alteration of the intrusive and volcanic rocks, but lack of an advanced argillic alteration assemblage. Phyllic alteration, if present, is limited to fault zones.
  • - Zones of alteration can terminate abruptly due to structural control which would also determine the shape and extent of intrusions and mineralized zones.
  • - Absence of a wide alteration halo.
  • - Low sulphide content of the hypogene mineral assemblage, resulting in limited or no supergene enrichment, though oxidation can be very extensive (e.g. Afton).


The Lithology of Alkalic Porphyry Cu-Au deposits is linked to their sub-volcanic setting and the repeated phases of intrusion. Hence, they can be a chaotic melange of volcanics and intrusives. The above model is a simplification, but it portrays the intrusive lithologies such as syenites, monzonites, gabbros and diorites. The volcanic pile ranges from basaltic to trachyandisitic to pseudolucitic, and is composed of flows, lahars, and tuffs. An important feature sithepresence of sub-volcanic intrusiveporphyry breccias which can host highergrade mineralization (NE Zone Mt Polley 11Mt @0.88% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au (Jackson 2008)).